Table 1 Comparison of strategy in studies of dietary supplement use in cardiac individuals. Anti-oxidants 4%75% users perceive safe, 70% effective, 45% believe cause fewer side effects than prescription medication40% physicians unaware 51% aged over 6528%76% White colored, 7% African American, 6% Hispanic, 6% Native AmericanVitamins 54%26% aged 36C50, 3% aged 18C2526%Ayurveda 57%doctors about CAM = ?0.30). to be more proactive in asking about product use. 1. Intro A dietary supplement is definitely defined as any product intended for ingestion like a product to the diet . These substances include amino acids, charcoal, choline salts, essential oils, flower or natural material, homeopathic preparations, Microtubule inhibitor 1 nonvaccine microorganisms, minerals, nonhuman animal material, lipids, substances from bees, and vitamins or provitamins. With this paper, we use the term dietary supplement to indicate any of these substances used as complementary and alternate medicine (CAM) and taken orally for the improvement of health or the prevention of illness. The use of dietary supplements is definitely common; in the general population, dietary supplements are the second most commonly used type of CAM after prayer . Dietary supplements can interfere with the biotherapeutic action of prescription medications, and this is definitely of particular concern in cardiac individuals, many of whom are on long-term medications and are at improved risk of acute life-threatening events. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, cancer, major depression, and panic have been consistently associated with CAM use , so it is definitely probable that individuals with chronic cardiovascular disease are also likely to use CAM. We carried out a systematic review of Microtubule inhibitor 1 the literature to find the prevalence of dietary supplement use by cardiac individuals and to determine commonly used health supplements. 2. Method 2.1. Study Selection A literature search was carried out on 2 December 2009. We searched the following databases from their earliest availability up to and including November 2009: Medline through OvidSP from 1950, EMBASE through embase.com from 1980, CINAHL through EBSCO Sponsor from 1982, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) through OvidSP from 1985, Australian Medical Index (Meditext) through Informit from 1968, Health & Society (H&S) through Informit from 1980, and International Pharmacy Abstracts (IPA) through OvidSP from 1970. MeSH keywords and qualifiers were utilized for databases indexed using this method, that is definitely, Medline and CINAHL. We used the MeSH terms cardiovascular diseases with the qualifier /therapy to find articles relevant to treatment of cardiovascular disease. To find articles on dietary supplement use, we used the MeSH terms medicine, traditional, dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals, each certified with /utilization. All MeSH terms were exploded to include subheadings. The cardiovascular disease search results were then intersected with each of the dietary supplement searches. For databases Microtubule inhibitor 1 not indexed using MeSH, searches were performed using the same terms without the qualifiers. In these databases, additional searches were carried out using the terms cardiovascular diseases, cardiology, and cardiac intersected with each of complementary and alternate medicine, dietary supplement, and natural medicine. Search results were limited to articles in English and those that dealt with humans where these options were available. The titles and abstracts of content articles were go through and refined to include only those studies that (i) reported the prevalence of dietary supplement use, (ii) involved a sample of individuals either going to for cardiac care and attention or those reporting a cardiovascular condition, and (iii) indicated the types of health supplements used. If abstracts were not available or were ambiguous with regard to these criteria, the full-text article was acquired for inspection. Content articles were excluded if (i) study methods were not explained, (ii) prevalence data on dietary supplement use were not reported (or these could not be determined from reported data), and if (iii) they were not in English. Citations in the relevant papers were also used to locate content articles not ANPEP found from the above methods. Figure 1 shows the selection of studies from the search results. Open in a separate window Number 1 Flowchart showing the selection of studies from search results. 2.2. Data Extraction Two data furniture were designed for systematic extraction of study information. Methodological details were extracted and compared in Table 1, while study content material and results were extracted and summarised in Table 2. The most common supplements are outlined in Table 3, and for the sake of brevity, this only includes supplements used by 1% of individuals and which were reported in 2 or more of the included studies. Table 1 Assessment of strategy in studies of dietary supplement use in cardiac individuals. Anti-oxidants 4%75% users perceive safe, 70% effective, 45% believe cause fewer side effects than prescription medication40% physicians unaware 51%.